Jaina sutras, part ii sacred books of the east vol. Jains trace their history through twentyfour tirthankara and revere rishabhanatha as the first tirthankara in the present timecycle. An introduction will therefore be of interest to anyone interested in the global religious history of humanity, and additionally to anyone striving to construct a morally responsible stance on how humans can learn to live together in all their religious differences. The buddhas teachings were preserved in the pali canon, which acts as an extensive analytical record written in pali, the buddhas native dialect. Therefore, jainism is known as a selfhelp religion. This page lists some jain festivals and holy days, including the birthday of mahavira and paryushana, which started as a monastic day of reflection. Jun 23, 2018 jainism is one of the foremost world religions that pushes human beings to rise to their highest potential and discover their most compassionate self. Jain religion the true nature of a substance is a religion any activities of body, mind and speech. The religion does not depend on gods, but on the self. Dec 11, 2014 the holy book of jainism is known as the kalpa sutra or sutras. Unlike most common monotheistic religions, jainism does not have one holy book that characterizes their faith. Jain history indicates that during the course of time, swetambar ascetics held three.
So far as we know, this is for the first time clearly expressed in jainism. Each of the three jain sects may celebrate slightly different festivals so not all jains will celebrate every holiday. It was a time and place of religious renewal, in which several groups reacted against the formalized rituals and hierarchical organization of traditional hinduism, desiring something new and fresh. Jainism traditionally known as jain dharma, is an ancient indian religion. Jains are very caring over the environment, they wear masks over their faces to prevent inhaling of any small insects and they carry. Jainism is an indian religion that emphasizes complete nonviolence and asceticism. He is often considered to be one of the most important figures in jainism, as he reformed and worked throughout his life to spread the religion around the world. My brothers and sisters of america, there is not the least shadow of hope that india can ever be christianised. Instead they have a body of holy writings or scriptures.
Jains see the world as a river of suffering and misery and fordfinders find a way to cross it. Instead they have a collection of holy writings and scriptures. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as sanatana dharma, the eternal tradition, or the eternal way, beyond human history. Mahavira was the 24th and last of the tirthankaras. At this point i will cite a sentence from john corts recent book framing. For example, all three traditions share a notion of karma as the actions of individuals that determine their future births, yet each has attached unique connotations to the concept. Jainism is an eastern religion with origins in the indus river valley dating back to 3000 b. History of jainism is the history of a religion founded in ancient india. In these books there are lucid descriptions on the birth of jainism. Traditionally ascribed to bhadrabahu, which would place it in the 4th century bce, it was probably put in writing 980 or 993 years after the nirvana of mahavira. Jainism religion religion history religion spirituality. The present book is one of the best and stimulating books ever written by scholars on jainism.
Religion and culture of the jains by jyoti prasad jain 1983, bharatiya jnanpith will provide an orderly and clear exposition of jainism as a philosophy and way of life, jain history, and the jains as. These sutras are collectively known as agams or agam sutras, the sacred books of the jain religion. Hence, the jain religion does not have one sacred book like the bible or. These books have a great amount of useful information on this topic, some of it written before colonialism destroyed or greatly modified aspects of traditional culture. Also, during the course of time many learned acharyas elder monks complied commentaries on the various subjects of the jain religion. The jainism has its own scriptures called agamas or srutas, which are directly derived from the tirthankaras. A main figure from judaism is moses who freed the israelites from bondage. Originally, the religion relied on the teaching of living gurus. The texts containing the teachings of mahavira are called the agamas, and are the canonical literature the scriptures of svetambara jainism mahaviras disciples compiled his. Christianity is the worlds biggest religion, with about 2. Download books, sacred, spiritual texts and pdf ebooks. Learn the basics of jainism as well as the beliefs and practices of one of the oldest religious traditions of india.
Jain scholars were supportive of akbar and jain texts praise his religious tolerance. Scripture is the synonym of the holy text, which consists of religious dogmas, and assertions of an authentic authority apta purusa. The following list of books incorporates a number of salient points of view, and they would be especially good for those not raised as jains. This book is the first comprehensive study of jainism to be published in the west. Jain philosophy is the oldest philosophy of india that distinguishes body matter from the soul consciousness completely. After two hundred years of vain efforts and of spending millions of dollars with the prestige of the conqueror and backed by british bayonets, christianity is not supported by. Mahavira was the last of the tirthankaras in a lineage of 24 thirthankaras, which suggests that the tradition originated long before the birth of mahavira. He was born as a prince in 599 bce, however at age 28, he gave up everything he possessed, in order to gain spiritual awakening. It is the oldest religion of the group and starts around 4,000 years ago. The holy book of the sikh religion is the guru granth sahib. The most often cited book of the jains is the tattvartha sutra book of reality thought to date from the second millennium bce, but only recorded in written form in the 5th century ce by umasvati, and it is at that point that jainism splintered into the two main sects.
Hinduism is an indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the indian subcontinent and parts of southeast asia. The a to z of jainism covers the history of jainism that. In olden times, monks strictly followed the five great vows of jainism. Finding books about african religion and spiritual beliefs in the public domain was not difficult. After two hundred years of vain efforts and of spending millions of dollars with the prestige of the conqueror and backed by british bayonets, christianity is not supported by the converts themselves. Judaism is an abrahamic belief based on the teachings of moses. Jains regard him and all tirthankars as a reformer who called for a return to beliefs and practices in line with the eternal universal philosophy upon which the faith. Side by side, it challenged many existing evils of the brahmanic faith. It was a time and place of religious renewal, in which several groups.
The cosmology of jainism, though difficult to present in a clear way, has been discussed in a scholarly manner. Dundas states this is problematic and a misreading of jain historical texts and mahaviras teachings. Although a significant text in the history of religious text because of its widespread use among religious denominations and its continued use throughout history, the texts of the abrahamic traditions are a good example of the lack of certainty surrounding dates and definitions of religious texts. Hinduism definition hindu religion, gods, beliefs, history. The truth has been revealed at different times by a tirthankara, which means a teacher who makes a ford i. Jain religion the true nature of a substance is a religion any activities of body, mind and speech which reduces kashay anger, greed. It deals with the history, mythology, philosophy, and religion and jam society in a systematic manner. A glance at its contents will reveal the fact that glasenapp has covered almost all the salient features of jainism. Hindus are in a similar position, even though they have the vedas, which can be considered the ultimate source of teaching.
Agams are the jain texts which are based on the discourse. Some artifacts found in the indus valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient jain culture, but this is highly. Jainism, hinduism, and buddhism share many key concepts derived from the sanskrit language and dialects that have enabled them to hone their religious debates. Hinduism definition, hindu religion, gods, beliefs, history, holy book definition hinduism is commonly thought of as a religion, but this is an inaccuracy, it is a way in which most of the people of india who are not muslim live. Jains see these texts, which are the transcriptions of lord mahavirs sermons, as sacred documents. The jains the library of religious beliefs and practices. Jain holidays and festivals largely revolve around important events such as births and deaths in the lives of the thirthnkaras, or saints. Jainism emerged in 6thcentury bce india, the same time buddhism was developing. Traditionsbeliefs like some of the other world religions, jainism is a religion of selfhelp.
Some artifacts found in the indus valley civilization have been suggested as a link to ancient jain culture, but this is highly speculative and a subjective interpretation. Mahavira jaina was one of the greatest reformers of ancient india. By birth, im jainand trying to be jain by actand i appreciate many historical perspective on jainism. The tradition presented in the materials below is one of the.
Jainism you should read enough of the materials presented in this section concerning the tradition of jainism in order to understand how this tradition displays the characteristics or elements that make a tradition one that would be termed a religion. Neither of these religions their religious philosophy around worship. Jainworld is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation of jain tradition of wisdom, compassion, equality, brotherhood, universal wellbeing and spirituality. Like buddhism, jainism is a religion without god which paradoxically opens to the truly sacred in the deepest reaches of all living beings in the cosmos.
This page provides information about important jain texts. Even religious scriptures were considered possessions and therefore knowledge of the religion was never documented. Life of mahavira jaina and his teachings history discussion. The development of jainism in different parts of india is delineated in a historical perspective. The arhant heritage jainism shraman culture is confirmed by the writings in srimad bhagwad, padmapuran, vishnupuran, skandapuran and shivpuran, naradpuran, manusmriti and other religious book. There are no gods or god who will help humans on the road to liberation. Followers of jainism are called jains, a word derived from the sanskrit word jina victor referring to the path of victory in crossing over lifes stream of rebirths by destroying karma through an ethical and spiritual life. Hence, the jain religion does not have one sacred book like the bible or koran, but it has many books compiled by several gandharas and srutkevalis.
The book will also be a fine choice for undergraduate students in a. One particular scene from judaism is moses with the ten commandments. Jainism is a religion originally from india that teaches that all the events in the universe are selfcaused, random, fixed and are independent of previous events or external causes or god. But jainism is different than buddhism in its ascetic beliefs.
The faith is named for the jinas, spiritual conquerors who have achieved liberation and perfection. Jains beliefs holds that 24 historical figures have lived and taught jain. The jains have 5 great vows by which they try to live their lives. Followers of jainism are called jains, and there are about 4 million worldwide. The holy book writing is the book in which allah wrote and sent upon prophet mohamed to give to the muslims to help guide them and teach them about the religion of islam. Jainism simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mahavira 599527 bc was considered the last in that category and he is also the founder of jainism. Jain monks and nuns are now permitted to possess religious books. The 10th guru, gobind singh, declared that he would have no living successor, and this collection of teachings would become the ultimate guru for the sikh. In fact, the householders are supposed to evolve to the monkhood in the later stages of life as was the case with the hinduism in the vedic era.
Why jainism is the worlds most peaceful religion youtube. The kalpa sutra is the holy book of the of jainism religion. The holy teachers are called the jina, and they are the epitome of teaching for all jains, especially the jina mahavira. In india, they share this feature with the buddhists. Jainism is one of the three major religions to emerge from india. We have certain scriptures which are considered as very sacred. Jainism is one of the foremost world religions that pushes human beings to rise to their highest potential and discover their most compassionate self. Jainism, indian religion teaching a path to spiritual purity and enlightenment. Religious scriptures of jainism are known as agama. According to paul dundas, in and after the 12th century. The holy book of jainism is a collection of texts known as agam literature or the agam sutras. Jainism religion religions in india religion history. Its monks are famous worldwide for their strict adherence to non. Jainism, along with buddhism and charvaka, is considered part of the.
It is based on the teachings of jesus christ who lived on the holy land 2000 years ago. The religion derives its name from the jinas conquerors, a title given to twentyfour great teachers tirthankaras or fordmakers, through. Dec 01, 2010 this book is well written as i stated above, it starts out with an excellent and thorough explanation of the cosmology of jainism and then works in the stories and history of the jinas, or those who achieved release from samsara, or basically the endless cycle of rebirths. Sep 11, 2009 represent a series of beginningless, endless and fixed truths, a tradition without any origin, human or divine, which in this world age has been channelled through sudharman, the last of mahavira. Buddhism, jainism is one of the three most ancient indian religious traditions still in existence and an.
The teachings of the twenty four tirthankaras were first composed in fourteen purvas and later in twelve angpravishthaagams by ganadhars themselves. Along with hinduism and buddhism, jainism is one of the three most ancient indian religious traditions still in existence and an. John cort, professor of asian and comparative religions, denison university, and author of jains in the world. This is great book not only for spiritual reading but also for environmental understanding. Unlike monotheistic traditions, the jains do not have a unique holy book that characterises their faith. Jainism arose in 7th century bc eastern india, home to hinduism and buddhism. The jinas are considered more respectable than the gods. Jainism dont have any specific holy book like the bhagavad geeta,the quran or the bible. The holy book of jainism is known as the kalpa sutra or sutras. While you likely know a little about hinduism and buddhism, each having over a billion followers, you.
List of world religions and founders, religious books, place. Jains believe that their tradition does not have a historical founder. Hence, the jain religion does not have one sacred book like the bible or koran, but it. Download the bible, the holy quran, the mahabharata and thousands of free pdf ebooks on buddhism, meditation etc. Jainism lays heavy emphasis on nonviolence ahimsa and the believers of this religion, whether a monk or a householder, follow a very strict, well disciplined life. Bible is the holy book which consists of old and new testaments. Also, as mentioned in the book, jainism is scientific religion covering physics, math and other subjects. Christians worship in churches and their spiritual leaders are called priests. Jainism, indian religion teaching a path to spiritual purity and enlightenment through disciplined nonviolence ahimsa, literally noninjury to all living creatures. Jul 15, 2009 the book will also be a fine choice for undergraduate students in a variety of fields, including religious studies, south asian studies, the history of religion and comparative philosophy. This religion, jainism, emphasizes on following the path of nonviolence. He raised his voice against many social and religious systems of his time.173 1626 1132 242 99 686 107 1410 1271 230 575 1336 1277 256 493 434 1112 124 1563 1524 620 1098 809 615 53 1498 1346 257 653 1577 1005 83 1089 935 770 171 714 1086 1313 369